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Excidium Troiae 



or 

Destruction of Troy 

by an anonymous author 



Translated by Muhammad Syarif Fadhlurrahman 
[ http://www.upwork.com/freelancers/~0104febefc5dbc9ddb ] 



Sponsored by http://mitologia.blogs.sapo.pt 
Dedicated to Joao A. 



This text was translated from the original Latin of E. B. Bagby's and V. K. Whitaker's edition of 
1944 (now in the public domain and available in 

http://www.medievalacademv.org/resource/resmgr/maa books online/atwood 0044.htm ) 
as part of a project to make available, for the very first time, Greek and Latin texts that are 
currently not available in translation. 



Feel free to read it, and distribute it in any way you like, but don't ever charge any money for 
the content here available, and don't change anything about the text or this introduction. 



If you want to quote this translation feel free to, but please give proper credit to the original 
translators, as credited above. 



[Print Edition Page no. 3] HERE BEGINS "THE DESTRUCTION OF TROY". Achilles' mother was 
called Thetis, who was elected out of the 50 Nereids. And you may ask: who were the 
Nereids? Or why were they given this name? The answer would be: because their father was 
Nereus and their mother was Ida. They were named from the name of the father and 
mother combined. Nereus and Ida lived on an island and there they beget 50 daughters. The 
tale rightly mentions the Nereids being in the sea because they were procreated on an 
island. From their rank, it is said, Thetis was chosen, whom Jupiter had fallen in love, and 
when he wanted to marry her, he asked her. And the answer to him was that if he were to 



marry her, if someone were to be begotten from them, he would drive Jupiter away from the 
kingdom. Fearing this, Jupiter gave Thetis in marriage to Peleus, a young man, and 
celebrated a wedding for him. 

It is rightly called a feast of the gods, therein were Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo the god of music, 
and Mercury; and also three goddesses, i.e. Juno, Minerva, and Venus. Discordia indeed, the 
goddess of strife, was not invited to their nuptials. She, driven by disappointment, produced 
a golden apple, on which she wrote: 'Gift to the fairest goddess.' And when the three 
aforementioned goddesses saw the rolling apple, all of them held it together, strife between 
them was created by the apple being held. And when they saw the title written in that 
apple, where it was written 'Gift to the fairest goddess,' they started to argue about their 
beauty. So they petitioned Jupiter to judge for them who among them was the fairest. Thus 
Jupiter, uncertain, not wanting to offend any of them, said to them: 'I can not be a judge for 
you; but I will provide you a judge who would judge for you.'... To them he said: 'Go to 
mount Ida which is over Troy, and there you shall find Paris the shepherd; only he can judge 
among you, for he is a just judge.' 

And you would ask: who was Paris, or, why was he called a just judge? The answer would be: 
he, Paris, was the son of king Priam of Troy, [Print Edition Page no. 4] born of queen Hecuba; 
when the queen was still pregnant with him in her womb, she saw in her sleep a flame 
coming out of her which encircled the entire city of Troy and burnt it down. When she 
consulted the temple what such kind of vision were, the answer to her was that if someone 
were to be born from her, Troy would perish through him— and which befell. Fearing that, 
when she gave birth to him, due to the augury, in order that all of the augury may be taken 
away from Troy through him, she ordered maidservants to abandon him outside the city in 
the mountain— which was done. And after he had been abandoned by those maidservants, 
he was taken up by a shepherd who was in that mountain, and he was reared by him. After 
he had grown up, his guardian clothed him in big clothes, to then assume pastoral habit. And 
he came to be the most renowned among the shepherds. To him, Paris, a bull of 
extraordinary size was born in his herd. That bull fought with other bulls of the shepherds 
and won against every single one of them. After Paris had seen him always being the victor, 
he gave him a golden crown between his horns. Seeing this. Mars transformed himself into 
the form of a bull and showed himself to fight with Paris' bull. He, Mars, being in the form of 
a bull, fought Paris' bull, and Mars stood as the victor. Then Paris, seeing Mars in the form of 
a bull, surmounted his bull and gave Mars the crown which he previously put on his bull. 

And because he served justice and he did not hinder himself, he was called a just judge. This 
opinion of him spread out. Thus Jupiter rightfully sought him as a judge between the three 
goddesses. And then? 

Juno, Minerva, and Venus approached Paris; and when they offered him the golden apple, 
they said: 'Read the title, and judge among us on the writing in the title.' He indeed, with the 
apple having been received, distracted them and postponed judgment. Because when the 
judgment was being postponed, one may use 'What do you give in order to win?' secretly to 
each of them so that none know about it as they go towards Paris. And then? First, Minerva 
went forth, and said to Paris: 'I agree that whenever you want to fight your arms with 
anyone, I will make you the victor, so judge me the fairest.' To her, he thus promised and left, 
preserving the promise to her. Following thereafter, Juno went forth to him, Paris. And she 



now promised him that the offspring of his flocks be multiplied [Print Edition Page no. 5] so 
that they generate twins, and he may judge her the fairest. She promised him as such 
because Juno is called the goddess of wedlock and offspring, just as Minerva is called 
goddess of arms and fights, and she left. After that, indeed Venus, covered with a purple 
cloak [naked?], holding the cloak before herself with two fingers, went forth towards him, 
and when she stood before him, with the cloak released she appeared nude to him. She thus 
said to Paris: 'I will give you a fairer wife, so judge me the most beautiful.' He, seeing indeed 
the appearance of the goddess or virgin, that she has young age, incensed with the rage of 
lust he said to her: 'I judge you the fairest of all,' and she left. Thus came the designated day 
that they may come to his judgment, and he gave the golden apple to Venus. They indeed, 
seeing themselves despised and dejected, they went out with great anguish. [Stored deep in 
mind remains Paris' judgment, and the injury of slighted beauty, and his loathed nation, and 
raptured Ganymede's honors.] Because he made judgment, the ire of the goddesses was 
kindled against Troy, that what the queen saw in her sleep had been fulfilled, for Troy would 
perish through Paris. They indeed, i.e. Juno and Minerva, while they left judged by Paris' 
judgment, started to think how Troy would perish. Venus indeed, in favor of whom his 
judgment had been, likewise so that she would fulfill her promise to Paris, started to think 
about his marriage. 

And while these were going on, a love of spectacles entered into Paris' soul which was being 
held at Troy, because he had never known it, he entered. And he proceeded to intimate the 
shepherd his guardian that he would descend to Troy where his father reigned to see the 
spectacles. His guardian indeed, fearing that he may perish, tried to withdraw him from his 
intention. To him thus he said: 'You have the spectacle of your herds. What do you want that 
you have never seen?' More and more indeed he longed to descend to Troy. Because his 
guardian could not withdraw him from his intention, along with him he descended to Troy to 
the spectacle in the circus. They, after the charioteers had run completing their sixth course, 
the wrestlers, as the custom holds. Print Edition Page no. 6] came down before the royal box 
to fight. When Paris watched them fight, presuming from his youth he began to seek to fight 
with them. When his guardian had seen him, fearing that he may perish, he wanted him to 
withdraw. He, verily, not obeying his guardian, but presuming from his youth, threw himself 
into the arena and fought with the wrestlers not by technique but with might, and accepted 
the crown. Verily, with the descending wrestlers young runners who exited ran from post to 
post. He ran into them and defeated them and accepted the crown. Thereafter, the sons of 
the king, his brothers, driven by frenzy, descended into the arena and provoked him into the 
course, and he won over them and was crowned for the third time. Seeing this, the king's 
sons who were defeated by him, compelled by anguish because he had confounded them in 
such a public contest, they started to plan his death to kill him; and they commanded the 
exit gates of the circus to be guarded by soldiers such that after the circus dismissed he 
would be surrounded, that they may fulfill their desire in him. When the guardian had 
realized this, he threw himself into the arena before the royal box, and with such a voice 
interrupted the king, saying: 'Have mercy, o king my Lord, on the young man, for he is your 
son; and you, oh princes, take away your fury from the young man, for he is your brother!' 
And then? — The king did recognize his son, the brothers their brother, and it was 
commanded to the queen, his mother, if indeed it were true what his guardian had 
suggested. Verily it manifested to the queen because through her dream she had seen him 
throwing himself. And when this had manifested to the queen, he along with the king his 



father, as well as with his brothers hasted to the royal house, and the triumph of the 
recognized son has become true from the mother in the royal house. This arrived to the 
priests, and they began to warn that Paris should be killed, not the city, after his mother had 
been previously visited through her sleep, that he should perish. When this was conveyed 
to the king, he said 'It is better that the city should perish, if our son would not be killed.' 

And when this was going on in Troy, his brothers the older as well as the younger ones who 
had yet wives compelled him to take a wife. He verily answered to them: 'I hold the promise 
of the goddess Venus, she will give me a wife.' And Print Edition Page no. 7] everyday he 
prayed on Venus' shrine, saying: 'Great Goddess, to whom the love of wedlock is conceded, 
fulfill your promise to me and give me a wife.' Because verily she was petitioned with his 
interruptions daily, wanting to implement her promise to him thus answered: 'From Greece 
you shall receive your wife.' And when these was going on, it happened that king Priam, 
their father, in his place of assembly with his sons— i.e. with Hector, Paris, and others— 
discussed about the captivity of Hesione their sister, who in the era of king Laomedon his 
father had become captive of Greece. Thus he conversed with them, saying: 'One of you 
shall go in ships with a great army to parts of Greece, and then liberate Hesione your aunt 
from there.' Verily, Paris, knowing the wife promised by Venus for him was from Greece, 
answered the king, his father, saying: 'Command ships with army and insignia to be prepared 
for me that I may fulfill the king's order.' And then? —the king's order has been completed 
and the ships with army have been prepared. 

Paris, indeed, with the army in the ships went towards Greece, in which province at the time 
king Agamemnon and Menelaus reigned. He, Menelaus, had the fairest wife beyond 
measure, named Helen, whom Jupiter in the likeness of a swan made love to and from him 
conceived, and from that conception Castor and Pollux were born to the renowned Helen, 
wife of king Menelaus. When he, Paris, there in that province had arrived, thus it happened 
that Agamemnon and Menelaus had been absent from their cities where they reigned 
without their wives. Indeed, the queens bearing the gates while their kings and husbands 
absent exited from the cities into the suburbs with their families above the mouth of the 
sea. In that location thus happened that when Paris had descended from the ships to the 
land, Venus' messenger proceeded to him and smote queen Helen with the arrow of love's 
fury. It happened that she Helen had seen Paris adorned with regalia over the mouth of the 
sea from the other side. And because she had been stung by her love, she ordered 
messengers to him, saying if any ornament that the queen pleases could be put for sale. 
Verily, now Paris looking against Print Edition Page no. 8] the queen, with the fury of his love 
kindled he was reminded that by Venus' promise he could take her as a wife. To the queen's 
messenger he answered: 'We bring such ornaments that may please the queens.' Verily, the 
messengers of the queen conveyed Paris' answer. She, indeed, sent the messengers once 
more, commanding that if they were carrying something great, they should bring it to the 
queen's palace. Paris, indeed, went, his clothes changed with ornaments. And when he 
exhibited the ornaments to the queen, smitten by love seeing the appearance and form of 
such youth, thus she said to him: 'I would like to see your king in secret, because out of what 
I excessively saw him over the mouth of the sea, I am aroused by his love.' To her, Paris thus 
responded, 'Behold, I am the king whom you mention. But truly so I would not be 
recognized, I have laid down my kingly apparel and in these clothes I have come to you. For 
out of what I have seen you, I am also aroused by your love.' To him she answered: 'Who are 



you?' He said: 'Son of Priam, king of the Trojans.' The queen said: 'And what reason made 
you come to our province?' Paris answered: 'A warning from the goddess Venus, that thus 
henceforth she promised for me a wife to accept.' The queen answered: 'I would want, if you 
so want, for you to take me as this wife.' Paris said: 'How can you be, while you be the king's 
wife, such that I may accept you as wife?' Helen said: 'Such that your soul would like. For out 
of what I have seen you, your intolerable love possesses me, that if you would not take me 
as a wife, I would die from your love.' Paris said: 'And how can you exit from the royal 
house?' Helen answered: 'My slaves from my household are very faithful who would very 
silently exit with the treasures and all ornaments at the hour of the night, such that you 
would be prepared with a ship at the mouth of the sea.' Paris said: 'And if this pleases the 
queen, both desires would be fulfilled.' And then? With Paris gone away, the queen 
commanded her most faithful slaves to call themselves together, thus she said to them to 
gather the treasures and ornaments secretly and at the designated hour they have been 
prepared. The hour came, and Paris with his ships touched the beach. Verily, the queen Print 
Edition Page no. 9] descended with her treasures and ornaments from the palace to the ship 
and set sail with Paris. And Venus' agreement promised beforehand between them was 
fulfilled. And then? 

The rumor spread across the whole province that the queen had escaped from the palace to 
the son of the king of Trojans with all the riches. This rumor came to king Agamemnon and 
Menelaus her husband wherever they were. Hearing this, both inflamed with great fury, 
they came to their cities. And with a thousand ships congregated and ten dukes with a great 
army, their protectors being Juno and Minerva because they were hurt by Paris for his 
judgment of the golden apple, they drew forth to Troy, such that what Paris' mother had 
previously seen in her sleep was fulfilled, because Troy would perish through Paris. 

We should return to the cause. Paris indeed, with Helen having been accepted, came to Troy 
and entered the house of king Priam his father with his wife, and there he came to be with 
his brothers. 

Indeed, Agamemnon and Menelaus besieged Troy with a thousand ships and ten dukes, 
where they erected a temple of Minerva outside the walls, and sought counsel what should 
be the future for them. The answer to them would be unless through Achilles, son of Peleus 
and Tethys, there was no way Troy could be approached. And they started to think where in 
the world could that Achilles be, and because rumor has it that he was secretly held in the 
house of king Lycomedes in the likeness of a virgin among the daughters of the king, i.e. 
Deidamia and others, Odyssey and Diomedes with the accepted ornaments or implements 
of virgins went to king Lycomedes in the likeness of ambassadors, as if sent by Agamemnon 
and Menelaus, where they feigned such falsehood when arriving, saying: 'Our kings, 
Agamemnon and Menelaus, seek to have you give them help at Troy.' To them he answered: 
'We shall draw, and we will give you our answer.' To him they said: 'If you so command, we 
would offer gifts, have us pay respect to your children.' The king said: 'You shall pay respects 
to my children, and offer the gifts that you bring.' Indeed, Odyssey and Diomedes with the 
accepted shield arranged the [Print Edition Page no. 10] ornaments and arrows that were due 
for the virgins, and they approached to the king's daughters as had been ordered. Among 
whom Achilles was in the likeness of a virgin, the king not knowing that he was a man, 
because he had been dressed by his mother in the likeness of a virgin. Odysseus and 



Diomedes paid their respects to them with the gifts; and when each and every virgin 
stretched their hands to the ornaments, Achilles indeed picked none except only the arrow, 
grabbing it with his fingers he was recognized by Odysseus and Diomedes. And immediately 
Diomedes sounded a trumpet. Indeed, when Achilles heard the trumpet blowing, invaded by 
fury of arms, he took the shield and lance in his hands, rebounding with pebbles he took off 
the feminine tunic that he was wearing, and took off the shoes from his feet. Odysseus and 
Diomedes said to him: 'kings Agamemnon and Menelaus commanded you to go with us to 
Troy, for it was answered to them, that through you Troy can be approached. When 
Deidamia the king's daughter, whom he had secretly impregnated and thereafter Pyrrhus 
was born from her, had seen that Achilles was lead to Troy, on her feet she prostrated herself 
with her son Pyrrhus. She thus prayed not to be dismissed. Achilles, indeed, entrusted 
Deidamia and his son Pyrrhus to king Lycomedes not to be neglected by him, and with 
Odysseus and Diomedes he advanced to Troy. Agamemnon and Menelaus received him with 
honor, and he went on to besiege Troy with them in an army. 

And you may ask: why did Achilles go in among the virgins? He, Achilles, was son of Peleus 
and Tethys, that when his mother had been struggling, holding his heel with her two fingers, 
with his head down she dipped him in the water of the underworld which is called Styx. And 
then he was made to stand, thus iron could not pierce him in any way, unless only in the 
heel where his mother's fingers held him when she dipped him. And when his mother 
consulted his constellation, it was answered to her: 'Because he will kill many with sword, he 
will likewise die by iron.' His mother fearing this, when her boy started to grow finer, she 
offered him to Chiron as a student for education in letters and arms; and when he had been 
taught in letters and arms by Chiron, he put himself to Chiron [Print Edition Page no. 11 his 
master, and killed a lion in the forest. When Tethys his mother saw that he could already 
bear arms, fearing that he would perish due to it for it had been said to her that he would be 
killed by iron, she took him from Chiron and fitted him in the clothes of a virgin, and led him 
to the house of king Lycomedes and pleaded him to educate him dutifully alongside his 
daughters. The king thinking he was a virgin took him and put him with Deidamia his 
daughter and with the others, as mentioned above. By this cause, Achilles was put among 
the virgins, and then, as we already mentioned above, was drawn to Troy. Pyrrhus his son, 
indeed, will be raised by Lycomedes his grandfather. What more? 

When Achilles came to Troy, Hector son of Priam king of the Trojans sought to fight a duel 
with Achilles. And because Achilles had been offended by Agamemnon and Menelaus on 
account of Briseis whom he had brought out through the walls around Troy, and had married 
her to himself, and thereafter was submitted to him by Agamemnon. That sorrow made him 
not wanting to go out against Hector. But Hector killed Patroclus; when this had been 
reported to Achilles, thrust by the excessive sorrow of Patroclus his friend he sought to fight 
with Hector, and they agreed the day between them when both of them would come to 
fight. And before the designated day came, firstly Achilles fought with the son of Neptune 
and killed him, then with Penthesilea queen of the Amazons, and he hurled her from his 
horse piercing under her nipple, after which she lied lifeless. Verily, after he fought with 
Memnon of Ethiopia son of Aurora, and he killed him piercing in his forehead. They all whom 
we remember had been petitioned by the Trojans for help. What more? 



The designated day came that he would come out to fight against Hector; Achilles killed him 
piercing him under his nipples in front of the walls, and then sitting above him with his 
friends— i.e. Ajax and Ajax Telamonius— he ordered him to be taken off his armor and 
commanded two untamed horses be joined to a chariot, and Hector's body be bound by his 
ankles behind the chariot and be dragged past the walls. When this had been reported to 
king Priam his father as and Hecuba his mother as well as Polyxena his [Print Edition Page no. 
12] virgin sister, talking above the city gate they saw Hector's corpse bound behind a chariot. 
And they pleaded with tears that gold be weighed against his body with a given balance and 
to them his corpse be conferred; which Achilles conducted by duty commanded it to be 
granted. And with a balance put outside the walls Hector's body was but at one part, at the 
other part gold was put; and when all gold had been finished and it was not equal to 
Hector's body, his virgin sister Polyxena put out her armlets and bracelets and put them in 
the balance. Verily, Achilles seeing the sight of the virgin burned by his love he commanded 
king Priam: 'I will give your gold and the body if you would give her to me as a wife.' king 
Priam granted it. And his daughter given to Achilles he received the gold and buried the 
body of Hector his son. 

Verily, after Polyxena had been married to Achilles and he much cared her, she was confided 
by king Priam her father as well as Hecuba her mother, saying: 'We believe that you must 
mourn for such youth of your brother against whom no man dared to raise his hands, and to 
anticipate for us the secret body part of Achilles where it could be pierced by iron; and after 
he is killed and the death of your brother is avenged we will be able to provide you with our 
better coeval marriage.' And after Polyxena heard this, she started to excite Achilles through 
caresses and sweet words so that he would show her the hidden spot where it could be 
pierced by iron. And because there is nothing that women would not extort from men so 
that they show to them as spouses behave lovingly, he showed her the secret spot in the 
sinew where it could be pierced by iron. After Polyxena knew this, she reported it to her 
parents who after they had heard it set to have devotion in the temple of Apollo and to offer 
sacrifice to him, they begged Achilles to be with Polyxena their daughter at that devotion. To 
them Achilles showed his agreement and went for devotion at the temple of Apollo. Because 
it was a custom that when anyone entered temple for sacrifice, he entered without arms 
and barefoot; which Achilles did. And when he had arrived at the temple, he deposed his 
armor and took off his hard boots from his feet, and he entered without armor and 
barefooted. And when he offered Apollo incense, Alexander [Print Edition Page no. 13] the 
great archer who was also Paris the king's son, Hector's brother shot his arrow at Achilles in 
his heel, and because he had toxified the arrow with poison, the poison stung through 
Achilles' limb. And when Achilles had started to feel the evil, while carrying firebrands from 
the altar as much as he found in the temple, it killed him, and thus he was dead. [Behold, 
how Achilles was dead.] Ajax and Ajax Telamonius, Achilles' friends, came and asked for his 
body from king Priam. And he granted them. They carried that body out of the city, and did a 
great lamentation over him. 

It was reported to Agamemnon and Menelaus that Achilles had been killed; they were 
greatly grieved; and repeatedly consulted the temples, and the response to them was that 
Troy would be torn down through Achilles' lineage. And they sent forth ambassadors to king 
Lycomedes, to send them Pyrrhus his nephew, son of Achilles born of Deidamia. And it was 
done. And when Pyrrhus son of Achilles came to Troy at 20 years of age, and the death of his 



father had been told to him, inflamed by fury he started to devise the way he could avenge 
the death of his father. What more? 

Agamemnon and Menelaus prayed to Minerva so that she would answer them how Troy 
could be approached. To them the goddess responded that they had to prepare deceptions, 
and as if spreading out they should carry themselves with ships and army from Troy about to 
return to their province, and at the island of Tenedos they should hide themselves, and 
there a wooden horse should be secretly built according to Minerva's instruction in order 
that Troy would be penetrated with it. Hearing that answer, they obeyed Minerva and 
brought themselves to the island of Tenedos with ships and army, as Virgil described it: 
Within sight is Tenedos, an island well noticed by fame, full of activities when the Priam's 
regime stood, now only a bay and harbor unsafe for keels of ship. When the arrived at 
Tenedos, in a hidden bay they gathered, and a wooden horse was begun to be constructed 
by them. 

[Print Edition Page no. 14] And as this was happening in Tenedos, the day being bright the 
Trojan citizens, spread out through the walls where the armies and ships of the Greeks had 
been, they saw no one and they were filled with joy. Thinking that they were free of 
enemies, they started to sing in Virgil's tongue: 'Here lay the Dolopian bands, there stern 
Achilles had pitched tent, here with fleets, here armies accustomed to fight.' And when they 
were filled by joy, they threw the open the gates of the city, and all herds and beasts of 
burden already secure rushed out into the marsh before the walls. 

And when Troy already stood secure, at Tenedos a wooden horse was created in the manner 
of divine Pallas. And when it had been perfected, they started to think out who that horse 
would be proceeded to Troy. Then one of the people by the name of Palamedes Sinon said: 'I 
will make it so that the horse be led to Troy.' To him they said: 'By what way?' Sinon 
answered: 'Cudgel me and go around before a slope, and send me in the marshes of Troy 
through the night.' And it was done. 

Indeed, the day being bright the shepherds of Troy as usual went out in the marshes with 
their herds and stocks, where they found Sinon cudgeled and girded lying before the slope, 
whom with great clamor they brought to king Priam with hands tied to the back. After he 
had been brought to king Priam, his fame traveled throughout all Troy. And a congregation 
of Trojans was formed before the king. The king started to ask him about the present crowd. 
To him he thus said: 'Tell us, from what origin are you, and what is your kindred.' To him 
Sinon thus answered: 'From the kin of king Palamedes, whom the Greeks killed; and when I 
wanted to assume something before his death, I devised hostilities among the Greeks. But it 
should be vowed to me that I would not be handed over to them and I will not tell people 
anything.' When it had been vowed to him that he would not be handed over to them nor 
touched, he now gave sacrament in that way with hands erected to the heavens: 'You 
eternal fires,' he said, 'I testify your inviolable divinity, you altars and swords sinful.' When he 
had thus given sacrament [Print Edition Page no. 15], with the sacrament accepted the king 
released him from his bonds and as he started to hold him for himself. To him thus he said: 
'Now you will be ours. Forget the Greeks.' 



Sinon, indeed knowing himself having been taken well by the king, prepared his devices, so 
that the horse, as it had departed from them, were drawn to Troy; and he started to say 
confidently to the king: 'When we go out from our province hither to you, a sacrifice was 
done from virgin blood, which Apollo desired thus. And now yet fore our return after we had 
prayed to Apollo, thus he answered: "When you consider to come hither, you placate me 
with the blood of a virgin. And now for your return unless again you have made sacrifice of 
human blood, there is no way you can have a return to your own." When we received such 
an answer, fear invaded everyone the soul of whom Apollo demanded. And when the lot 
had been taken, it fell upon me such that the offer to Apollo would be from my blood. And 
thus fleeing to a place found hither at your kingdom, I fell down. Meanwhile, they made a 
horse of marvelous size, which they wanted to offer to the temple of Minerva which was 
built outside the wall for the sake of their return. That fear he hopes your kingdom to be 
already here. Therefore have him be taken from the temple of Minerva which is outside the 
wall, and there send that horse to the temple of Neptune which is inside the city [and in his 
protection Troy was built]; and it will be necessary that Apollo and Minerva, due to a 
promise to them is seen to be broken, are angered, and when they started to sail they 
roused tempestuous power <and sink them in the main. And you will be deprived of 
enemies.) And with such a plot and in Sinon's manner of perjury she was captured which 
neither ten years nor a thousand ships managed to vanquish. 

When the king heard these from Sinon, he started to care for him as proper and hold him in 
his house. And when it was going on, the Greeks, as was dictated from high above, knowing 
Sinon had been taken well at the king's house and [Print Edition Page no. 16; that secret which 
they had talked about had been completed, and they dragged the wooden horse which they 
created through the night from Tenedos to Troy and put it before the temple of Minerva 
which was outside the walls. And when day shined and the horse had been seen at the 
temple of Minerva, the people started to exit the city in droves to see the horse. Among 
them Laocoon the priest of Neptune went out and rebuked the people saying, as Virgil 
described: Laocoon hastened down from the top of the great citadel accompanied by a 
crowd. And he said: 'What insanity has invaded you all, oh citizens, if you believe the enemy 
gone or you think any gift of the Greeks to lack deception? If anything is certain, I fear 
Greeks bringing gifts. Either someone is hidden wandering inside (believe ye not, oh 
Trojans), or this horse was made so that the enemy would ascend the walls through it.' And 
saying this he erected a pole with powerful men and gave it into the belly of the horse, and 
those who were enclosed inside it made noise, as was written: the hollow cavities made 
noise and gave a groan. And Laocoon was already very close to damage the hiding place of 
the Greeks if the mind had not been foolish. [That is, contrary.] So god was angered against 
Troy, thus fates carry out. 

And when Laocoon wanted to divert the people from their intention, the people did not 
want to draw their attention to him, but to him they say: 'If you want us to believe your 
sayings, make a sacrifice to Neptune; and if he answers it with what you are saying, it will be 
necessary for us to believe your sayings.' Then Laocoon brought a strong bull to the altar; 
and with his two twin sons coming to the altar of Neptune, when he wanted sacrifice the 
bull, behold from Tenedos above the waters of the sea with immense orbs serpents [that is, 
dragons] hissed and spewed slime. They coming, tied the sons of Laocoon and killed them 
with their bite; when Laocoon wanted to cast out his sons, he was eaten by the serpents 



with his sons. After the Trojans saw this, the gods were already angered against them, [Print 
Edition Page no. 17] they said: 'Because he resisted the horse of Troy from being sent to the 
temple of Neptune, Neptune deservedly was angered against him, and the serpents were 
sent against him in order to devour him and his sons.' 

And when everything had been sent to king Priam, he ordered young and unmarried girls to 
be gathered with lamps and the horse (as Sinon had said with deceit) be taken to the temple 
of Neptune. When it had arrived at the gate and the horse could not enter because it was of 
great size, the walls were torn in around the gates, and thus the horse moving on wheels 
was sent into the city, as Virgil described: We opened the walls and spread out the ramparts 
of the city. Everyone prepared to work; and they forged gliding of wheels on the feet and 
they stretched out flaxen bonds on the neck, and the fatal machine mounted the walls. 

What more? 

When the horse was sent into the Troy, through the solemnity because the gift of the 
enemies of Minerva was given offered to Neptune. They made a great banquet, and Troy lay 
ruined in sleep and wine. And when the night had come, Sinon, seeing Troy lay buried in 
wine, went to the horse, and opened the door which lied in the belly; and exiting nine dukes 
who enclosed inside it were armed came out— i.e. Thessandrus, Sthenelus, Ulysses, Acamas, 
Thoas, Neoptolemus Pelides, Machaon, Menelaus and Epeius the architect behind the 
deception— who all go around through the gates. And the enemy of the Greeks who were by 
Tenedos, they raised signals from Sinon from Troy, uninterruptedly the came into the ships. 
And when they came into the gates all opened, they entered the city through the night and 
burned the city with fire and sword. Behold, how Troy was killed and invaded by its enemies! 

And when Troy was invaded, Aeneas son of Venus and Anchises son in law of king Priam was 
admonished through his sleep by the shadow [Print Edition Page no. 18 of Hector, because 
the enemies had not gone reached him yet, as Virgil described: Behold, before my eyes the 
most mild Hector seen come to me shedding many tears, with stiffening and rough beard, 
having thong of swelling feet. Thus such he said: 'You sleep, oh goddess-born; your enemy 
holds the walls, rushes down from the high summit on Troy. We used to be Trojans, Ilium 
and the great glory of Troy used to exist.' 

After the shadow of Hector said this to him, Aeneas awoken, ascending into the tower which 
he had in the upper parts of his house and focusing his ear, he heard the roar of armies and 
flames like tow and crop when sent into an oven. And passed, he wore his armor, and from 
his house armed as he wanted to go out, his wife held him. To her he said: 'First, keep this 
house safe.' He indeed, pushed his wife off of him, he exited with armor. And when he 
wander through the city, many gathered themselves with him, among whom was Coroebus, 
who had betrothed Cassandra the king's daughter, and had came to her to take her in 
marriage, and there the destruction found him. And while thirty armored men had been 
obtained, they pushed against thirty adversaries, of whom there was Duke Androgeus. And 
when both attacked each other in the dark night, Androgeus hoping to obliterate Aeneas 
with his companions from his army thus spoke to them, saying: 'Alas,' he said, 'youths, why 
did you disembarked from the ships slower?' When Aeneas, indeed, recognized Androgeus 
with his companions to be enemy, he killed him along with all those joining him. 



[Print Edition Page no. 19] After he had killed him, fearing lest they run into a bigger army and 
he be recognized, they stripped the breastplates and helmets off all those they killed and 
wore them and also bore their arms; and thus <Aeneas> spoke to his companions, saying: 
'We should change shields and fasten ourselves with the insignia of the Greeks. Trickery or 
virtue, who questions them in an enemy? They will give arms.' And after they had walked 
already in the ensign of their enemies, they started to killed as many as they encountered. 
And as they wandered through the city, behold seeing Cassandra screaming very loudly 
being dragged by her hair by their enemies. Coroebus with his mind in rage could not bear 
this sight. When the fiance had heard her voice, he plunged himself amidst the enemies 
wanting to liberate her and there he was killed. 

After Aeneas had seen it, he brought himself to the king's house. Where he saw Pyrrhus 
from afar, son of Achilles, had already entered the king's house with an army; and Pyrrhus 
ran behind Polites, son of king Priam, through the courtyard with an unsheathed sword. He 
killed him in front of the altar which was in the king's house under the laurel tree before the 
eyes of king Priam his father. Priam, who when he saw his house being entered, protected 
himself with arms and an armor; and with Hecuba his wife stood before the altar. To him his 
wife thus said: 'Neither with such help nor with these defenders this time will be. For if the 
gods wanted Troy to be defended. Hector would not be killed.' When Priam, indeed, saw his 
son killed by Pyrrhus before his eyes, he started to rebuke and curse him, Pyrrhus killed 
Priam before the altar like he did him, as Virgil described: This was the end of Priam's fate, 
this result of the lot bound him: witnessing the burned Troy and its collapsed citadel, and 
him, the supreme regnant of Asia over so many peoples and lands. He, a large trunk, lay 
down at the beach, and his head torn away from the shoulder, a corpse without a name. 
[This is the end of Priam.] 

[Print Edition Page no. 20] He <Pyrrhus> caught Polyxena, who indeed had reported her 
parents the secret point where the very same Achilles could be pierced by iron, and brought 
her to the grave of his father. And with the grave opened he put her alive in the sarcophagus 
where his father lay, covered it, and locked it with lead. [Behold how Polyxena was killed.] 

Indeed, when Aeneas had seen the king killed, he started to think how would he throw 
himself out of Troy. And when he was brought back to his house, his mother showed herself, 
coming to him in her divine power. To him she said: 'Bear the father and the son and get out 
of here; for, when Jupiter considered your fate, they responded to him that it befits you to 
occupy kingship in Italy— not only you but also the children of children and those who would 
born from them.' And when it was addressed to him, she was suddenly not present. While 
departing from his mother, Panthus the priest carrying golden idols crossed his way. To him 
he thus said: 'Troy entrusts you its sacred objects and its penates. Take these, flee, where 
you will be, build fortifications.' And after he had taken the gods from him, he departed. 

Thenceforth coming to his house, he spoke to all his family, saying: 'Whosoever in any way is 
able to the temple of Ceres, he should present himself to me with all his possessions, 
likewise also with every furnishing of my house, to him we would be able to evade 
adversaries by our hands.' And [after] saying this, he raised his father on his shoulder over a 
pelt of a lion. And holding the hands of Ascanius his son, thus he spoke to Creusa his wife 
daughter of king Priam, saying: 'Hey wife, let us go out for the fates do lead us!' And exiting 



from his house through the night [Print Edition Page no. 21], to the temple of Ceres which was 
outside the city in the mountains at a secret location, he proceeded into the midst of the 
cypress trees. And when they made his way, his wife wandered away from him. And when 
they had come to the temple, he found there a great multitude of Trojan nobles, there they 
brought with themselves all their riches. When they saw Aeneas, they all started to plea to 
him falling on their knees with great tears. To him thus they said: 'We confirm you from this 
day as a duke for us, and wherever your fortune will be, we will follow.' And with this saying, 
Aeneas was confirmed as a duke by them. And when looking around he could not see his 
wife, he turned back again from the temple of Ceres to Troy. And he started to call out with a 
great voice: 'Creusa, Creusa, where are you?' he said; and after he had shouted, her ghost 
appeared. To him thus she answered: 'Do not seek me now; for I have been taken by the 
gods, and they have put me in their number, rightly I announce this to you would be the 
future. It befits you to attain the kingdom promised to you through the perils of the sea and 
also through a long time, and you will accept another wife. Seek. I entrust you Ascanius our 
son as well as Anchises your father so that you would not grieve them anywhere. And do not 
forget your Creusa.' And when she had said this, Aeneas wanting to hold her embraced, 
thinking she is alive, she suddenly was away from his eyes. Seeing this Aeneas went back to 
the temple of Ceres with much tears. And when he arrived there, he spoke to all his 
companions as they assembled themselves, saying: 'Hey all you most mighty men, embark 
upon the ships, and shall we go to where fates have called us for.' And uninterruptedly the 
entire multitude of Trojans, obeying his command, immediately embarked the ships with all 
of their possessions, where Aeneas with Anchises his father and Ascanius his son as well as 
his family embarked upon. 

And they went out of Troy with twenty ships. When the day shined, looking back, they saw 
before them the ramparts of Troy emitting smoke, and they heard them giving great howls 
[Print Edition Page no. 22] about the perdition of their city. Indeed, they made their way 
through the seas. And first, coming to Samothrace, when their ships touched beach and they 
wanted to offer sacrifice to their gods that they brought, they built an altar under the root of 
the mountain. When it had been built, Aeneas asked for laurel or myrtle whence the altar 
was coronated. And looking around in the midst of dense forest he saw myrtle trees; and 
when he saw them and thereafter cut off their twigs, those twiglets started to distil drops of 
blood. When Aeneas saw it, he went away; and he started to wonder what could that be, 
and he considered them to have been wild nymphs. And putting his ear upon the ground, a 
voice from under the ground answered him, saying: 'Refrain,' it said, 'and do not disturb my 
grave. For I am Polydorus, son of king Priam, whom my father secretly requested the king of 
Thrace to have me nurtured here with many riches. He, indeed, wanting to gain from the 
riches I carried, ordered me to be killed in this place with lances. And they killed me, they 
drove lances over my burial mound, and those lances sprouted leaves and were turned into 
myrtle. But I warn you: flee from these cruel lands, flee from this avaricious shore.' And after 
he had said this, the voice from under the ground became silent. 

Hearing this, Aeneas then embarked the ships with copious tears; and he went down 
wandering for long periods of time in the sea to a deserted beach where there was no 
human habitation under the trees. And when he descended from the ships with his 
companions, they climbed up a forest where they found none too small herds or cattle, 
those cattle or herds were of the harpies. Celaeno was the queen of those birds. And when 



they slaughter one from that [none too small] herd or cattle, they made a feast for 
themselves in the woods. Behold, suddenly a flock of harpies came; and when they saw 
their herds laid waste, they started to will to send themselves in flight and snatch and 
devour one by one. Seeing this, Aeneas started to shoot those birds with his companions; 
and after they could not conquer them with arrows, seeing them disturbed, they put 
themselves under the groves of trees where the birds [Print Edition Page no. 23] could not 
advance for a feast. Seeing this, the birds started to defecate the food upon them. Then, that 
queen Celaeno sitting on the pinnacle of a mountain started to prophesize future hunger for 
they dared to lay waste to their herds. And it came to pass. 

Thenceforth wandering across the seas, they arrived at Sicily under the fiery mountain; 
where when they touched land they heard the voice of Achaemenides (a Greek from 
Ulysses' army who had been made captive by Polyphemus the Cyclops; and escaped away 
from him down from his cave, and could not descend upon the beach for fear of other 
Cyclops should he be killed by them; but for a long time he sustained himself with herbage 
in the forest, and between rocks in hidden places lest he be seen hiding by anyone) shouting 
and saying with such a voice: 'Carry me, oh Trojans, and take away as much lands as you can. 
If I perish, it will please me to have perished by a human hand.' After Aeneas had heard this 
voice of a begging man, he had the ships ashore and took Achaemenides aboard the ship. 
And you would say: who was Achaemenides, or the Ulysses from whose army he was taken 
captive; or who was Polyphemus who took him captive? It should be answered: This 
Achaemenides was from the army of Ulysses, who in another name was called Odysseus. 
This Odysseus was among the ranks of the ten dukes whom Agamemnon and Menelaus 
invited as auxiliary. And when Troy was subdued and burned, thereafter all and every one 
returned to their province. And when they were returning, they bore diverse punishments 
from the immortal gods, from whose rank, as we said above, Odysseus with his men 
returning to his province, bounced by the wind, was turned to Mount Etna of Sicily. In this 
mountain, Vulcan the God of Fire, through whom every article by goldsmiths, silversmiths, 
bronzesmiths, or craftsmen or blacksmiths are made. The Cyclops were the disciples of that 
Vulcan; and the most potent of all was Polyphemus, that Polyphemus who was stained with 
the blood of humans and sheep. He, when Odysseus with his companions was coming, 
heard Polyphemus' opinion. He laid at his cave; and when he found him lying in the cave, he 
relieved his eye from the burning lamp. He indeed, awakened from his sleep Print Edition 
Page no. 24 as he sensed an eye departing, going out of his cave with a great grief and with a 
roaring he thrust a lance at a tree; and made for himself a club from it, and started to strive 
through to the beach to capture and kill Odysseus and his companions. And as he arrived at 
the beach, he could not capture Odysseus and his ships; instead he took and bloodied as 
many men at the beach who could not gather themselves on the boats. From those ranks of 
captives only Achaemenides could escape from him. And when renowned Polyphemus, who 
is a Cyclops, he could not capture Odysseus, he gave a cry like an elephant, and three islands 
trembled under his cry. Rightly so, as said above, only Achaemenides escaped his captivity, 
when Aeneas heard his voice, he carried him onto the ship and took him from the Cyclops' 
captivity. 

And moving thereafter he ended up on another Sicilian beach, seeing over the mouth of the 
sea a temple of great size; and when he went to the temple, he found Andromache, Hector's 
widow, praying, whom Pyrrhus son of Achilles made concubine for himself. When she 



recognized Aeneas with Ascanius his son, she started to cry and explain about the matter of 
Troy. And holding Ascanius son of Aeneas towards her in an embrace, thus with tears she 
said to him: '0 light of Dardania, whom Aeneas the father and Hector the uncle roused.' And 
as she cried and when they wanted to go away from her, she gave Ascanius gifts; and 
weeping bitterly, they left from one another. 

Thereupon disembarking, he arrived at another Sicilian beach, where his father Anchises 
died. He buried him with dignity, and made a mound of great size over him. 

And when thereafter they wanted to go in order to take a kingdom, as they went aboard the 
ships, Juno driven by anger about Paris' judgment and wanting to erase the entire nation of 
the Trojans went to Aeolus king of the winds, and asked him to excite the winds so Aeneas 
with his ships would perish. [Print Edition Page no. 25] Aeolus obeying her, with a sharpened 
point of his spear opened the cave in which winds were kept in. And the released winds 
started to rush out through the forests and the lands; thereafter they entered the sea and 
scattered Aeneas' ships through diverse beaches with shattered masts and yards. Among 
which before their eyes a ship, in which Palinurus was the helmsman, sank; and Palinurus 
came to be tossed by the waves of the sea, and he wanted to reach Aeneas' ship by 
swimming. But because the force of the storm was such, neither could he reach the ship as 
the waves tossed him, nor could Aeneas make the ship touch him; and while swimming he 
deprecated Aeneas with tears aplenty, saying: 'I pray by your parent, by the hope of a rising 
lulus, rescue me from these evils, oh you the invincible, either throw an earth to me; for 
indeed you can also proffer the Veline port; or if there is such a way, if your creator goddess 
show any such to you (nor indeed, I believe, you manage to navigate such rivers and the 
Stygian pool without the will of the gods), give your right hand to this miserable one and 
bear me with you through the waves, so that I may at least rest in death on gentle seats.' 

And after he had plead these pleas, he was no longer visible, engulfed by the waves. Indeed 
the other ships, as was mentioned above, was dispersed through diverse beaches by the 
wind from Juno's ire, as Virgil described: When Juno, preserving an eternal wound behind 
her chest, went to Aeolia; there king Aeolus in a vast cave both makes winds to sooth, and 
tempers wrath. To him she said as such: [Print Edition Page no. 26] 'Oh Aeolus, for indeed the 
father of the gods and king of men enabled you to sooth the winds and to give open reins as 
commanded. A nation inimical to me navigates the Tyrrhenian sea, bearing Troy as well as 
vanquished gods into Italy. Excite the power of winds, overwhelm the ships submerged, or 
make them disperse and scatter their bodies in the sea. There are twice seven nymphs with 
body surpassing me, of whom she with the fairest form, Deiopea, I will unite in a stable 
marriage and will declare her your own.' After Aeolus heard this, he answered to Juno: 'Oh 
goddess, sister of Jupiter and wife, as this kingdom was given to me by you and you hold me 
in power, how much all winds that are held under my control.' And when he had said all 
those to Juno, released the winds, as was mentioned, and dispersed Aeneas' ships, as was 
reminded above. 

When Aeneas indeed saw his ships being dispersed by the wind, he raised his palms to the 
heavens in the middle of the sea and started to pray to Jupiter with copious tears so that the 
winds may be pacified by him. When he prayed to Jupiter, Neptune heard his prayers and 
raising his head from under the waves he commanded Euros and Zephyr to be summoned to 
him. To them he thus said: 'Hasten your flight to your king, say you this: "Jupiter did not give 



him the dominion of sea nor the ferocious trident, but the lot is given to me."' The winds, 
indeed obeying their order, came back to their place, and thus tranquility in the sea was 
created. And as this was happening, within two hours six ships among his ships gather 
together towards Aeneas; the other twenty indeed was dispersed across unknown beaches. 

And when Aeneas was navigating with seven ships to an African beach, he was turned away 
into parts of place which was called Abar under the mountain where now a city is built by 
shield. And when they touched beach, ignorant of the province where they had stumbled 
upon, and furthermore thinking that twenty ships wandered from him and the one in which 
Palinurus was sunk before his eyes, relinquishing his companions Print Edition Page no. 27] on 
the beach, he ascended the mountain with Achates his guard, wishing to inspect the plain of 
the mountain in order that he perchance could see his ships that wandered off from him. 
And as he was ascending the mountain, he looked around and saw a herd of grazing deer; 
and bearing arms from Achates his guard he killed seven deer with arrows; and he 
distributed one for each ship. When they were being distributed, they tore off the skin and 
disemboweled the entrails. And when a feast had been made, Aeneas started to encourage 
his companions, saying" 'Eat you with a strong soul, oh most sturdy men; god will give us 
help, and he will send us to Italy for assuming a kingdom, as he promised. Therefore rejoice 
you; and have hope in god.' And after he encouraged them, again he ascended the mountain 
with his guard to inspect the sea, should he be able to see his ships. Behold, Venus his 
mother appeared to him in the form of Harpalyce [that is, a huntress] in the dress of a 
huntress— i.e. highly girded boots on the feet and bearing a bow on the collar of the 
shoulder and on the head wearing a ribbon in the hair. To him she said: 'Hey,' said she, 
'young one, perhaps you saw someone: my wandering full sister equipped with a quiver and 
with a skin of a spotted lynx?' To her Aeneas answered: '0 virgin, I confess to having seen 
none of your full sisters; but I do not see you speak with a human voice, instead your voice is 
of the goddesses. But if you are a goddess, expose yourself to us so that we would not show 
less respect to you than we do respect other gods. And say to us in what province have we 
wound up.' To him Venus answered: 'Truly, I am not a goddess, but you should know 
yourselves to have wound up in the province of Libya. And it is a custom for Libyan virgins to 
bear quivers. But, as I see, you focus on ships which wandered off from you, for we are acted 
upon by an augury of the gods. Observe twice six swans each whom Jupiter's bird followed 
from the height of heaven; those are the sign of your ships, hope they soon come to you. 
And for I know that you wandered across the sea for a long time, I give you counsel. Behold, 
the city of Carthage is near here, which now is founded by Dido of Sidon. [Print Edition Page 
no. 28 That Dido is deprived of a man, because her man Sychaeus was killed by Pygmalion 
king of the Sidonians, his brother, wanting to take away his riches. And thereafter from Tyre 
and Sidon she wound up here with a great army; and there only king Jarba was her equal 
here, where now she built Carthage. Because, as I have said, she is deprived of a man, she 
will be able to catch you and take you as a spouse for herself.' And after she said this, she 
drew away from him. And after having her apparels changed, she again showed herself in 
the likeness of the gods. When Aeneas noticed here, because she was his mother, he fell 
himself over with tears thus he prayed to her, saying: 'Mother goddess, what deception do 
you make of me with such sights? Where are the promises that you promised me at Troy, 
that I was able to hold a kingdom of Italy? Behold through how many trials, whether hunger 
or seas, we have gone through so that we also have endured storms. Have mercy on us now, 
and liberate us from such troubles.' To him his mother answered: 'Go, as I said before, to 



Carthage, and you will have to be taken by Dido, your love having been inserted into her. 
Thus say to your companions to embark the ships and arrive there with their seven ships. I 
will lead you under a mist.' 

He went, and he arrived at the port. On that port. Dido of Sidon built a great temple for 
Juno, where it was called horse head. And you may ask: why horse head? The answer ought 
to be: because, when Carthage came to be founded by Dido, as the first stone on the 
foundation was called, incense to Juno was made by Dido on that stone because Carthage 
was founded under the protection of Juno. And after a sacrifice had been made, a head of a 
horse appeared in the fire, so that it showed Carthage to always be bellicose, and to be 
without dukes nor kings. In that place, as has been said above, Dido of Sidon built a great 
temple for Juno. In that temple, it depicted all the reigns and the fall of Troy. At that temple, 
as said above, Aeneas went in Print Edition Page no. 29] with Achates his guard, while being 
covered by a mist, along with the seven dispatched ships with his companions. And when he 
saw the entire fall of Troy depicted in that same temple, the picture fed his soul with 
emptiness; and filled with tears he said to his guard: '0 the misfortune and fall of Troy! 

There is not one region throughout the whole globe where the rumor of our fall has not 
penetrated. And after he said that to his guard, queen Dido suddenly came into the temple 
surrounded by a group of slave boys and slave girls, adorned with gold and gems. Aeneas 
seeing her, he was not seen by anyone. And when Dido sat down on her throne, she began 
to legislate and constitute a sacred senate. And after she gave the laws, suddenly she saw 
twelve ships with broken masts and yards touching the port, those which wandered away 
from Aeneas, when Juno roused a storm against him. Dido, thinking those are of enemies, 
she commanded armed men to those ships. They led all of the subdued men who were in 
those very same ships, and thereafter burned down the ships in fire. And after all of the 
Trojans were had been brought before the queen's face, the greatest of all those Trojans 
started to tearfully say to the queen: '0 queen, to whom Jupiter granted that you may build 
such a city, have mercy on us and put away the abominable fire from our ships. Have mercy 
on us, we pray you, and acknowledge our case.' The queen ordered for their binds be 
released and them to explain their cases. 

Then the Trojan thus responds: After Troy, our city, had been invaded and burnt down by 
the Greeks due to kindling the anger of the gods, a storm scattered us as you see, as well as 
others away from us, we came from the temple of Ceres as refugees. Where also Aeneas, 
son of Venus and Anchises has ended up as a refugee with Anchises his father and Ascanius 
his son as well as with all of his family, his wife the daughter of Priam our former king having 
been lost. When we saw him, we elected him as a leader for us while down on our knees, 
because thus it has been admonished by the goddess Venus his mother that he would 
obtain the kingdom of Italy Print Edition Page no. 30] — not only he but also those born of his 
descendants and even those born of them. We knowing this, we followed his fortune. And 
after Troy had been burnt down, we escaped with twenty ships as well as Aeneas himself as 
our duke; and up till this time seven out of those the destruction of Troy affected, we were 
thrown about by the danger of the seas and nowhere did we found a place. And when we 
progressed from Sicily to Italy, suddenly we experienced a storm. And we were scattered 
away from our other party, and we do not know whether he Aeneas, our duke, along with 
the other ships escaped it or perished in the sea storm. Indeed, we miserable with broken 
masts and yards stumbled up here. Rightfully, we ask you, oh lady queen, that you give 



license so we may repair the masts and yards of our ships and we may go to Italy following 
the promise of the gods. Perhaps there we will be able to find Aeneas, our duke.' 

After the queen had heard this, she answered them: 'Disembark from your ships and 
commingle with my people, and with auspice Jupiter will lead us. And it will be necessary 
that I direct corsair ships through all African beaches, so that they may bring Aeneas here 
from where he will be found. And our marriage will not displease him. For I am also a 
traveler in this province, and hear you our case. I am born as a daughter of the king of 
Sidonian Tyre; and when I had reached a nubile age, I was then given in marriage to 
Sychaeus an illustrious and magnificent man by my father, great gifts having been accepted. 
And when my father departed from this world, Pygmalion my brother took hold of his 
kingship. And attracted to my husband's wealth with his familiars, he killed my husband in 
the hunt. And the death of my husband was concealed from me by him, wanting to likewise 
kill me and get my wealth. And as this was happening, my husband's ghost talked to me 
through my dreams, saying that I, with all of my collected wealth, should escape; also I 
should take and carry the hidden wealth of his ancestors and forefathers from the land. 

[Print Edition Page no. 31] And I did that. And congregating all the people to me in secretly 
collected ships, as I said, I assigned with all of my riches, and I went down to Sicily. When 
coming to Syracuse, I wanted to found a city, the people started to complain to me. 
Acknowledging this, because it was not imminent for me to have seat there, embarking the 
ships with all of my companions, I went down here. When I asked who was the king of this 
province, it was said to me larbas the Gaetulian; to whom I sent an ambassador only so that 
he would divide someplace for me that I may have a seat with my companions. And he 
divided this place for me against what a strip of bull leather could lineate. And after I 
perfected this city, he wanted to take me in marriage, whose matrimony I despise. But if 
your duke is such, and we will be able to reach his shadow, perhaps, as I said before, our 
marriage will not displease him.' 

After Dido had talked with Aeneas' companions, Achates Aeneas' guard answered: 'What 
are you hesitating? You see the queen while not knowing you, yet falling in love with you. 
Therefore tear the mist, and show yourself to the queen who you are.' As Achates said it, 
Aeneas showed himself to the queen in the middle of the temple from the ruptured mist. 
Armed with a breastplate and a plumed helmet, holding a shield and lance, he declared 
himself to the queen in the likeness of Mars: 'Openly,' said Aeneas, 'I whom you ask am 
present.' And when the queen saw him speaking, burned by love of him, abandoning the 
orders that she gave to her people, she held Aeneas' hand and started to lead him to the 
royal court. Seeing this, Aeneas' companions from the twelve ships who subdued by Dido 
were exposed, prostrated themselves falling forth on their knees before Aeneas, saying: '0 
light of Dardania, whom Jupiter confirmed as leader for us, so where in the world the 
violence of the gods had separated from us?' Seeing them, Aeneas was filled with tears, and 
he ordered them to be with his companions who had been in the seven other ships. When 
queen Dido [Print Edition Page no. 32] saw this, knowing him to be the duke in the temple, 
inflamed by his love, while holding his hand she led him to her royal court, showing him the 
wealth of Tunis and the furnished city. Then she asked him to dinner. To him she said thus: 
'The communion of this people [that is, mine and yours] and together we should rule with 
auspices; and she should be free to serve her Phrygian husband.' And then she ordered 



tables to be adorned with royal tapestry. Aeneas, as he felt himself loved by the queen, 
talked to Achates his guard, saying: 'Go to the ships, and with you Ascanius my son would 
come to dinner. And he should carry with himself the gifts which he offered to the queen by 
himself— that is, a state-robe stiff with gold and gems, a crown from gold and gems which 
queen Helena had given us, as well as a necklace [i.e. adflotitorium (?)] which Andromache 
had given. And when you come here with them all, Ascanius my son would adore the queen, 
and would offer her gifts by himself.' Achates indeed, obeying Aeneas' orders, went to the 
ship. 

When Venus had learned of this, she said to Cupid her son that he should change himself 
into the form of Ascanius son of Aeneas in one night, and he had to offer the gifts which 
Ascanius offered to Dido by himself, when with a kiss to her he initiated her love for Aeneas. 
Indeed, Cupid obeyed his mother's order, whom she prayed to him thus, saying: '0 son, you 
alone my forces and my great power, to you I appeal and supplicant I ask your divine power. 
Know that Aeneas your brother is loved by Dido. Rightfully I beseech you to transfigure 
yourself into the face of your nephew Ascanius, and offer Dido the gifts by yourself; and 
when most happy Dido will accept you in an embrace, set the queen on fire and you 
entangle the fire with her.' Cupid, as mentioned above, indeed obeyed his mother's order 
and offered Dido the gifts by himself, and he stung her with the love for Aeneas through the 
marrow. And you may ask: when Cupid transfigured himself into Ascanius' face, where was 
Ascanius? The answer should be: Venus sent Ascanius into sleep on the ship, and carried 
[Print Edition Page no. 33] him in his sleep, and put him on mount Idalius, where diverse spices 
of Venus were. 

Rightly Achates found Cupid in the form of Ascanius on the ship. To him he said thus: 'Your 
father command you to carry gifts with yourself and offer them to the queen by yourself.' 
Indeed, Cupid bore the gifts in the form of Ascanius and went to the queen with Achates; 
and when he adored the queen with the gifts, the queen took him in her embrace. And 
when she was kissed by him, she was shot with love through his kiss, and she started to 
protract the dinner and ask Aeneas about the fall of Troy, wanting to satisfy herself from his 
person, as Virgil described: All silenced their mouths and held their attention. Then, from his 
couch father Aeneas thus begun from on high: 'You ask to renew an unspeakable sadness, o 
queen, as the Greeks cast out Trojan wealth and its lamentable kingdom, each most misery I 
myself beheld, and of which I was a great part. Who of Myrmidon and Dolopians or of 
Ulysses' strong army could refrain from tears with such a tale? And still, a humid night fell 
down from heaven and the setting stars urge to sleep. But if so much desire, and you want 
to know our case and to briefly hear the supreme burden of Troy, though my soul trembles 
for having remembered, I shall begin.' And before they went into dinner. Dido ordered to 
bring many dishes of food to Aeneas' ships, twenty great oxen, one hundred pork loins, one 
hundred lambs with their mothers; and there was a great merriment. What more? When the 
dinner had been finished, all friends stood up, and bade the queen 'farewell'. And when the 
friends had dismissed themselves, Dido asked Aeneas so both of them to toast their saucers 
to each other's health again, as Virgil described: After the first rest in the dinners, the tables 
having been removed, they put forth saucers and crown the wines. And they prayed to Juno 
to perfect their accepted love. In that dinner in the ministry of Dido there were one hundred 
slave girls adorned with gold and gems [i.e. fifty], who fumed the entire royal house with 
spices. What more? 



[Print Edition Page no. 34]When the dinner had been finished, they each bade farewell. And 
after Aeneas dismissed, Dido started to be inflamed with love the whole night, and saw no 
sleep, as it was written: unhappy Dido is inflamed, she roamed through the whole city 
raving, like a doe shot by arrow with venom, and as long as she was inflamed, so long she 
cooled herself in the fountains. Thus Dido was inflamed, and talked to Anna her sister, the 
sacred virgin, saying: 'Anna my sister, who terrify me with such sleeplessness? Whence the 
Trojan he wound up on our shores, I have been hurt by excessive love for him/ And when 
this was going on, the day shone; and she asked Aeneas again for dinner on another day, and 
she started to be more inflamed by love of him. 

And when this was happening, Juno held opposed that Aeneas accept Dido as wife, and she 
began to prevent the marriage of Aeneas. When Venus had knowledge of this, she asked 
Jupiter that he request Juno to agree their marriage be strengthened, as it was written: 
meanwhile the house of the omnipotent Olympian is opened, and the father of gods and 
humans alike called for a council. And after he called together the council of all gods, he 
asked Juno to permit them to be married. To him Juno obediently conceded, and said to 
Venus: 'You have everything that your mind asked for.' To her Venus said thus: 'How will that 
marriage be able to be celebrated?' Juno answered: 'I will make it that both would go out to 
a hunt. And when they hunt in the forest, I will have to send in snow and hail; and when the 
take refuge from the strength of the hail, they would come escaping to a cave, and there 
they will unite themselves. And there will be Hymenaeus.' Not wanting harsh. What more? 
The other day shined as Juno's saying was fulfilled. Dido asked Aeneas both of them to go 
out for a hunt, and both of them did go for a hunt. In such a clothing Dido exited: in the 
vestment of Harpalyce [with virile garment shoes on feet, donned with a robe, [Print Edition 
Page no. 35 holding a clasp, highly girded; and she tied a ribbon from gold and gems on the 
hair of her head. And similarly Aeneas donned a breastplate, a plumed helmet, with 
Ascanius his son and with Dido they went out into contest. And when the came into the 
forest, they chose a boar or lion descending from the mountain. And when they pursued, 
suddenly according to Juno's saying, a mist appeared. From which mist a hailstorm started to 
come. Seeing this. Dido brought herself back into a cave. Indeed, not knowing while 
returning likewise he was brought back into that same cave, where finding Dido he had 
intercourse with her, and both satiated themselves in love. Behold how Dido was united with 
Aeneas! As Dido could not conceal her hidden love; immediately that great rumor of Libya 
went through the cities, no any other evil faster than rumor (in movement it is vigorous, and 
it accrues power in advancing), which bore itself to the clouds. What more? 

That rumor about the union of Dido and Aeneas arrived at the great king larbas. And this 
having been heard, he raised his palms towards the heavens, and he prostrated himself on 
his face before the hundred altars which he dedicated to Jupiter; and he prayed to Jupiter 
with such a voice, saying: 'Omnipotent Jupiter, to whom now Mauritania, the nation feasting 
on painted beds, makes libation with fine wine, to you I appeal and suppliant I beg your 
divine power. You hear, o father who turns lightning, that Dido disdained our marriage, to it 
we only conceded to remain; and she received Aeneas the foreigner in her kingdom.' The 
Omnipotent heard, and turned his eyes to the city walls. And he called Quillenius [i.e. 
Mercury] to himself, to him thus he talked and commanded such: 'Go do, o my son, call 
Zephyrus to yourself; so talk to the duke of the Dardanians, who is now located at the citadel 
of Carthagenian Tyre, and you will convey [Print Edition Page no. 36] my sayings faster through 



the air. And say to him: 'I believe that thus for you destiny has planned that you would 
obtain the kingdom of Italy, not only you but also those born of your children and those 
born from them. And you have put yourself in the love of a woman, and you have dismissed 
a kingdom promised to you; but if such love of a woman holds you, let Ascanius your son to 
obtain the kingdom promised to him."' When Jupiter had said this to Mercury, Mercury went 
to the headland of Carthage, and told Aeneas every single thing said above. At the first one 
Aeneas did not obey, then at the second admonished he neglected. On the third time he 
kindled hatred between him and Dido, as he said to Dido: 'Aeneas wants to leave you and go 
away.' And to Aeneas he said: 'Don't have faith in Dido, for she thinks about your murder, 
because a woman is always different and susceptible to change.' And after this had 
happened, they started not to love each other fully. And Dido began to complain to him, 
saying: 'I believe that I have taken you as husband and I have always love you, and I have 
benefited your people and mixed them with my population in my kingdom; yet you want to 
leave me.' To her Aeneas deceivingly said not going to dismiss her from himself. What more? 
Aeneas secretly ordered for his companions to send the ships into the sea and bring 
necessary foods in the ships. What more? When the ships had already been prepared by his 
companions, it was reported to him that everything had been prepared; and at night he left 
Dido sleeping on a bed, and secretly embarked upon the ships, and left his sword on the 
head of the bed. And when he embarked upon his ships, he set sail. What more? 

The day shined in, and Dido awakened on high talked to herself. And when she saw Aeneas' 
ships already rising in the distance, going back to her bed, she talked to Anna her sister, 
saying: 'Go to the temple of Juno and consult whether Aeneas would come back to us.' And 
when Anna went to the temple, looking around Dido found Aeneas' sword hanging on the 
head of his bed. Led by great sadness, she started to lament thus: 'I have lived, and the 
course which fortune had given me, I have gone through, and now the great image of me 
will go under the earth. I have built a brilliant [Print Edition Page no. 37] city, I have seen my 
walls. From this man I have received punishment from my inimical brother. Lucky, alas very 
lucky, if the Dardanian ships had never touched our beaches.' She had said, and attendants 
observed her half collapsed while thus with iron, and a sword frothing with blood and 
strewn hands. Clamor went to the high halls when that rumor went around the city. They 
murmured its laments and sighs and covered with women's ululation; the air resounds with 
great clamors. Never had all of Carthage nor the ancient Tyre resounded like thus, unless 
with enemies let loose. What more? When Anna her sister descended away from her to the 
temple. Dido killed herself with Aeneas' sword. Anna her sister cremated her, as the custom 
of the ancients had it, and put her ashes in an amber urn next to the ashes of Sychaeus her 
husband. 

Aeneas navigating, indeed set upon Sicily again. Where he traversed coming to the burial 
mound of his father, and celebrated the anniversary to him with great rejoice. And 
thereafter navigating, he came to Italy. And firstly he touched on the city of Hostia which is 
next to the port of the city. There disembarking the ships he went into the city; and as he 
went around it, he saw outside the city a rampart of stone, over which he ordered to build 
camps, where he would include all his riches as well as those of his companions under 
protection lest it not be where it remained. 



And when camps had been established, Aeneas threw himself under the shade in his camps 
over the mouth of the river Tiber. And after he had thrown himself under the shade, the 
citizens of that very same city approaching him said: 'Lord king/ one said, 'from what 
province are you and what reason made you to come here to our city?' To them Aeneas 
answered: 'I am Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises, citizen of Troy, son in law of the then 
king of Troy, Priam; and after Troy our city had been defeated and destroyed by the Greeks, 
admonished from the orders of the gods that here [Print Edition Page no. 38] a kingdom is 
promised for me, I went out from Troy after its destruction with twenty ships and with 
companions whom you see. And here I went to you following the command of the gods. And 
having done the ire of Juno, I was thrown in the sea for seven years. Thereafter with the 
tempest much gathering, I was thrown to Carthage, where I was taken by queen Dido, who 
founded that city. She, Dido, inflamed by love took herself in matrimony with me. And when 
I was at Carthage with her, I was admonished by a messenger of the gods to leave her and 
go here to Italy for taking a kingdom. And because I could not disregard the command of the 
gods, I left the famous Dido and here I arrived at you.' To him the citizens answered: 'How 
will you be able to have a kingdom here, when Latinus is our king, son of king Faunus, 
nephew of king Picus? He, Picus, was the son of Saturn. And he, Latinus, our king, is seen 
over a great army which he has, even took a son in law for himself with the name Turnus, 
son of king Daunus. He, Turnus, came to him with a great army for Lavinia his daughter, in 
order to take accept her in marriage; and now the army has been made twice. How will you 
be able to prevail against them to obtain a kingdom and overthrow them from kingship?' 

And after they had said this, they dismissed themselves. 

Indeed, after Aeneas had heard it from the citizens of Hostia, in that same place over the 
mouth of the river Tiber his heart started to be disturbed. And as he was troubled, sleep 
entered him, and in that sleep the divine power of that river talked to him through his sleep, 
saying: 'Do not be disturbed by the sayings that the citizens of this city said to you. Do not 
think that you will not be able to obtain the kingdom promised to you; indeed you will 
obtain a kingdom, and you will accept Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus, in marriage. But 
should you think this vain, I am the divine power of this river Tiber who is talking to you. But 
go and put Ascanius your son in this fortification, and dispatch with him armed men; and 
ascend through me here to king Evander, who is seen to have a seat in the seven hills, 
because here Evander has enmity with king Latinus. But because he is short in people, he 
obviously does not prevail, and he seeks an auxiliary for Print Edition Page no. 39] himself 
because with it he could fight. Therefore, join yourself with him, and it will be necessary that 
both of you fight against him. And as you should believe in my sayings, when you start to 
navigate, you will find on the middle of the journey over the mouth of the river under an oak 
tree a white sow lying— giving birth thirty heads of offspring, the white reclining on the 
ground, the white offspring around the udder. This is the place of your city.' And you may 
ask: what were the seven hills where Evander reigned, and what was the figure of a sow 
which had generated thirty piglets? The answer should be: seven hills where Evander was— 
i.e. the Aventine, Tarpeian, Vatican, Janiculum and three others— those are where for many 
years Rome was founded by Romulus from his mother Ilia. The sow indeed which procreated 
thirty offspring shows the prefigurement where the city of Albana was founded. Albana is 
rightly named because where the sow appeared to him, there Albana was founded by the 
posthumous child Silvius, son of Aeneas from Lavinia born after the death of Aeneas. And 
Albana received its name from the white sow. 



Let us return to the matter. Aeneas indeed, while he was visited by the divine power of the 
river, entered the camps, and he had Ascanius his son and all of his most mighty companions 
called to him. He addressed them, saying: 'I entrust to you these camps and Ascanius my son 
and also all the wealth that we brought with us, lest enemies steal and take away everything 
from us; because I am going to go to king Evander to ask help from him.' And after he talked 
to his son and companions, he embarked a ship. He took with himself some from among his 
most mighty men and he began to sail to king Evander along the river Tiberinus. While he 
navigated, at the middle of the sailing path he found under an oak tree a sow with its thirty 
offspring and offered a sacrifice from it; and he put a sign in that very place to show where 
thence the city of Albana had to be founded. What more? When Aeneas arrived at Evander's 
seat, his ships was seen to arrive. They, indeed, seeing ships which he did not [Print Edition 
Page no. 40 recognize, led by fear he armed himself and rushed an army against Aeneas. As 
Aeneas was those army, he raised a branch of olive from his ship, showing himself to come 
in peace. When Pallas son of Evander saw this, he went to meet Aeneas and received him 
from the ship with veneration; and after he disembarked from the ship, he went to Evander. 
He, Evander, with all his people in that very day was offering a sacrifice to Hercules and 
celebrated the solemn day. From that cause, because Cacus son of Vulcan [who], when he 
was alive, ravaged cattle on those hills, and at that very day it came to pass that Hercules 
killed him, in order that that province be deprived of that monster and ravager, the natal of 
Hercules was celebrated every single year there on the Aventine hill, where now Rome was 
founded. And it came to pass that, as is mentioned above, Aeneas on that very day went 
there and thus found king Evander with all his people celebrating the natal of Hercules; he 
received him with dignity, and asked him to the feast. Aeneas said thus to him: 'I have 
presented myself and my head, and suppliant I came to your doorstep; this is it, I have not 
sent ambassadors to you instead I came by myself, so that you may provide an auxiliary for 
me against king Latinus of the city of Laurentine and Turnus, who found a son in law for 
himself; because due to the admonition of the gods I have ended up here, they admonished 
me to assume kingship of this province and to take Lavinia daughter of Latinus in marriage. 
And when I arrived here in the city of Hostia with my men, I was reminded by the river 
Tiberinus through my sleep to go here to you and ask help from you, because it was said to 
me also that you have enmity against him. Rightly I do ask that both of us unite and fight 
against our enemies.' Indeed Evander said to Aeneas: 'Have us consume the feasts; and we 
would go there to my seat, and there we will arrange those that you propose.' What more? 
After they had finished the feasts, thus Evander with all his people took themselves to their 
seats. With whom Aeneas also attended. 

[Print Edition Page no. 41] And when Evander had arrived to his seat and there had been a 
delay from giving Aeneas an army, Juno, because she made enemies with Aeneas as she had 
known Aeneas openly ask for auxiliary from Evander for himself against Turnus, sent Alecto 
the fury to Turnus. To him she said thus: 'I have put you at the city of Laurentine to be 
luxuriant in the midst of women; and behold Aeneas the Trojan came, and he wants to expel 
you from your kingdom and to separate Lavinia your spouse from you and marry her with 
himself. He, Aeneas, sent down Ascanius his son with a few of his armed men near the city 
of Hostia, and he went to king Evander to ask for auxiliaries against you. Therefore go in a 
swifter way; bring with you an army and go to Hostia, and with him absent, kill his son along 
with all whom he was seen to have with him, lest, if you delay this, you will begin to lose 



your bride and be thrown out of your kingdom.' What more? Turnus having been 
admonished by Juno, armed himself and with a prepared army went to Aeneas' son. 

And when they had arrived there, he surrounded the camps where Aeneas' son was with 
the army. And Aeneas' son started to be confounded by Turnus; and when he wanted yet to 
give his hands [Print Edition Page no. 42] and hand over himself to Turnus, some adolescents, 
two friends (i.e., Nisus and Euryalus), said to Ascanius son of Aeneas: 'Do not hasten to 
surrender yourself so quickly; instead you will hand it to us, suppose we destroy the enemy 
throughout in the night and we go after your father to Evander, in order that he comes over 
with an army and liberate us from the hand of the enemies?' Ascanius indeed, as he heard 
Nisus' and Euryalus' statements, started to speak them with tears, that, if they committed 
what they said, he would make them his brothers and divide the kingdom between them 
and give them great gifts. And after Ascanius promised this, saucers were offered to them; 
and they both, while drinking, constrained themselves through sacraments about to fulfill all 
that was mentioned above. What more? 

After they drank with Ascanius, they bade farewell, then indeed to their mothers, and at a 
silent night they were deposited through the walls. When the descended from the wall, they 
both spoke to each other, saying they have to direct themselves to Turnus' tent and kill him 
in his sleep. And after they had said this, the counsel pleased both of them, and they sent 
themselves across the midst of the enemies; and the started to want to go through to 
Turnus' tent, because there was such a deep sleep among the enemies that even their 
horses lay stretched on the ground and there was no one awake. And while they aimed 
Turnus' tent, they came to Ramnes, Turnus' augur, who pronounced the future to him; and 
when they entered into the tent, they saw him being adorned in regal clothing; thinking it to 
be Turnus' tent, they went in over Ramnes and found him subdued in sleep and wine lying 
on regal carpet with a bare chest, and they killed him with a sword. And they took his arms 
—i.e. a shield stiffened with gold and gems, a helmet like thus and also his sheath and 
lances. And already returning with a sword fully thinking they had killed Turnus, they started 
to kill as many as they could in their way through the tents; and when they saw the light- 
bearer waking up, they said to themselves in turn: 'We should exit from here because the 
inimical light approaches.' Ramnes indeed, who pronounced the future, could not foresee 
[Print Edition Page no. 43] his future death, as it was written: He could not avert death with his 
augury. Nisus and Euryalus indeed, after they had killed many, went out from the tents; and 
as they made their way after Aeneas, they adorned themselves with Ramnes' arms, and the 
helmet came to run into risk against the moon, because the helmet has such gems which 
raised risk against the moon. And when they made their way, it came to pass that Vulcens 
king Latinus' attendant went over after Turnus with three hundred shielded guards directed 
by Latinus, as it was written: Behold horsemen hastened from the Latin city, three hundred 
shielded all with Vulcens as master. And when Nisus and Euryalus became aware of the 
sound of the coming parties, they took themselves from the way in the midst of the forest. 
They, the coming party, indeed saw the helmets and the lances risking against the moon. 
With a loud voice they exclaimed: 'Hey,' on said, 'you youths who are there, or where are 
you making your way?' They indeed gave no response to them. Indeed, Vulcens with his 
companions, as they heard no response from them, started to shoot them arrows from their 
horses and hurl lances at them. Nisus indeed went out to them from within the thickness of 
the forest due to his valor, and as he saw himself unrestricted, he prayed to the moon and all 



of the stars, saying: '0 Latina, goddess of all stars, I ask you to that my lance under fortune 
which I will throw will not fall on the ground emptily but instead will fall with injury to my 
enemies.' And as he threw his lance, it killed one. Again, he threw another, and stroke down 
the second one. The third indeed in turn wounded him, Vulcens, the attendant. And as these 
happened, they started to rage against Euryalus and wanted to kill him. Indeed Euryalus, as 
he saw himself withheld by the enemies, started to shout with a great voice: 'Oh Nisus, oh 
good brother and a friend, help me.' Indeed, Nisus sensed that Euryalus his friend pressed 
down by the enemies, suffering for his friend's death [he who already escaped], preferred to 
be killed with his friend, and he offered himself to the enemies, saying: 'Me, Me, I am who 
did it; [Print Edition Page no. 44] turn your iron on to me, o Red Ones! My entire deceit; 
neither it nor anything could.' And after he said this, he offered himself to be killed by the 
enemies. And when both had been captured by their enemies, they were killed, and they 
put their heads on lances. And thus they came to Turnus at the first light of day. Where they 
arriving, they found great lamentations in the tents about the death of Ramnes and others, 
and they murmured enough amongst themselves who indeed had dared heedlessly enter 
into the tents and commit such things. And as the dispute between themselves, Vulcens, as 
is mentioned above, came with the heads of those who had committed it, and said: 'Behold, 
these are the ones who committed this wickedness.' And as Turnus saw this, carrying with 
him the heads on the lance, went to Aeneas' camps. And when he showed them the heads 
of Nisus and Euryalus, the message reached their mothers. After they heard this, with a 
great lamentation they threw themselves over the walls and became dead. What more? 

Turnus indeed started to attack the camps very strongly. And when Ascanius saw the camps 
disturbed, he was willing to hand himself over. And when these were going on, behold 
Aeneas came over with an army whom king Evander gave. And his son, seeing his father with 
auxiliary coming in ships, the camp being left he met him on the way with his army. And 
Turnus did not want him to go off descending their ships. But because Aeneas led his new 
army and Turnus was still weak from fighting, Aeneas existed as the victor. Turnus indeed 
running away from Aeneas to the Laurentine city, where king Latinus was his father in law, 
he conveyed himself. Aeneas indeed put himself after the commission of the battle and after 
vessel in a few days, with whom there was even Pallas son of king Evander. He, Evander, gave 
Aeneas his son with an army; he, [Print Edition Page no. 45] Pallas, while not going out in an 
expedition, because he was a small boy and unique of his father. And when he gave him to 
Aeneas, with much tears, with his mother present, he had entrusted him to teach arms; and 
thus he went out with Aeneas, and with him he started to be in training. 

Turnus indeed when he arrived at Latinus his father in law, with the counsel having been 
done started to think that they should ask auxiliary for themselves. And they asked 
Mezentius; he, Mezentius, was called a despiser of the gods, because he was stained with 
blood and inflict such punishments on humans, whosoever was found culpable with him, he 
imposed such a punishment to him that the burial mound of a dead man who had recently 
died opened up and his corpse was stinking with worms. And over that cadaver he tied a live 
human, and thus shut the joint-covering of the sarcophagus and sealed it with lead. And 
whosoever was there, he made a horrible death. Behold, the kinds of punishments 
Mezentius imposed on men; and even in battle he did not trust god but the virtue of his 
right hand, as he said: 'My right hand is my god and weapon which I throw as missile.' And 
that he trusted his right hand and sword and not god, he deservedly was called a despiser of 



gods. He, Menzentius, having been asked for help, came to Latinus with his son Lausus and 
with one thousand selected armed men. And even Camilla, queen of the Amazons, having 
been asked for help by Latinus, came with her great army. What more? 

Aeneas, after he went quiet for a few days, armed himself and went there to the city of 
Laurentine. Turnus with Mezentius and queen Camilla confronted him and a violent battle 
started to be exerted; in that battle, Pallas son of Evander, whom Aeneas asked for help to 
himself, was killed by Turnus. Turnus finished him off and raised his bracelet, and girded it to 
himself and started to strengthen the battle more. Aeneas indeed, carrying Pallas' corpse 
and carefully conditioned him and kept him in his tent. And when they battled, even queen 
Camilla was killed by Arruns. He, Arruns, who [Print Edition Page no. 46[ killed her, was from 
Turnus' people, and when he saw Camilla engaging many battles, he said: 'Virtue holds to be 
assigned to women and not to us.' And stealthily he pierced her in a secret spot and killed 
her. And because she, Camilla, had been nourished by Diana, Goddess of the forest, with the 
milk of mares, suffering from her death Diana shot a thunderbolt at Arruns who killed her 
with his bow, Arruns being pierced by Diana was dead. What more? 

As the fields became white with human bones and the ground had become full of human 
blood, Juno, seeing Turnus' party being weak, wanting to liberate him from death, 
transfigured herself in the clothes of Aeneas and showed herself in the clothes of Aeneas 
against Turnus and begun to want to fight against him. Turnus indeed started to want to 
skillfully fight. Juno indeed, as she saw Turnus being prone, started to flee and she took off 
from Turnus as if hastening away. As Turnus indeed saw Juno in the likeness of Aeneas 
fleeing, he started to follow him and drove him out of the battle away from his waiting 
people, as if he pursued a fleeing Aeneas. What more? As if he took off fleeing from the 
battle towards the sea. When he had arrived at the sea, Juno through equipped a ship 
through apparition fantasy on which she embarked as if she had taken captive of Aeneas. 
When he, Turnus, embarked the ship, Juno showed herself in her own appearance. To him 
she thus said: 'I, wanting to liberate you from death, rightly changed myself into the 
appearance of Aeneas so that I may cast you out of the battle. Therefore go to your father 
and do not come outside that land, because fate has planned Aeneas' victory to be 
imminent, and obtain the kingdom of Italy, and also accept Lavinia in marriage. Therefore go 
to the kingdom of Daunus, your father, and obtain him and ask another wife for yourself; 
and understand lest you return to that battle you will get a horrible death there.' And as she 
said this to him, she excited favorable winds which brought him to his father; and it was 
done. 

And when he arrived at his father, Aeneas indeed, as he sensed Turnus has been cast out of 
the battle and was not present, started to strengthen in the battle; and offered himself to 
fight to him, Menzentis on behalf of Turnus. Aeneas shot him [Print Edition Page no. 47] with 
his lance on his flanks; and when Menzentius took [injury], he cast himself from the battle, 
and went to the river wanting to wash the wound which had been injured by Aeneas in the 
river. And as he arrived at the river, under an oak tree freed himself from his arms, and 
suspended them on that oak tree, and started to wash his wound. Indeed after the 
departure of Mezentius, Lausus his son, wanting to avenge his father's injury, offered himself 
to fight with Aeneas. To him Aeneas said: 'Where are you going, oh one about to vanish; and 
you dare to raise your hand against me?' And after he had said this, Aeneas pierced and 



killed him with his lance, and he was dead. When Aeneas had seen him killed, suffering the 
death of a youth on whom soon wooly substance from flowers manifested, he said to his 
companions: 'Carry this corpse and bring it to his mother so that this corpse would not be 
eaten by beasts.' His companions started to go carrying him to his mother. And thus he came 
to pass as they passed where his father bathed. Menzentius seeing them from afar, bad 
thought present his heart indicated, because they carried the death of his son. When the 
dead body of his son was brought to him, he wept with great sorrow and sent him to his 
mother. Indeed, moved by the sorrow of his son, he trampled his sorrow with dust and again 
donned his arms, and came to Aeneas like a rabid dog yet to die. And he started to reckon to 
himself, and thus he talked to his horse, such, if he came with the head of Aeneas, he would 
impose gold collar on his horse. What more? He went to Aeneas, seating on his horse with 
hands full of sharpened javelins; Aeneas confronted against him on foot. And with the army 
watching both started to skillfully fight as two masters, like two bulls in battle. What more? 
As both fought skillfully, Aeneas threw his lance and thrusted into the forehead of 
Mezentius' horse. The horse indeed, as it got the lance on his forehead, [Print Edition Page no. 

48] started to scatter its cuffs and shoes and kill Mezentius its master from above. And thus 
even he fell down. Indeed, as he saw Mezentius falling from his horse, Aeneas trampled over 
him. To him he said thus: 'Where now the keen Mezentius?' Indeed, Mezentius, as he saw 
himself lying under Aeneas, begged to permit his body be carried to his wife and be put 
beside his son. And after he begged him, Aeneas pierced his lance into his chest and killed 
him, and he released him from his arms and wore them himself. 

And Aeneas started to triumph that he is free from Turnus and Mezentius who were bold. 
And he started to think how he would enter the city of Laurentine and married Lavinia to 
himself. And after he discussed it, he said to his companions: 'Because we have become free 
of enemies, let us go to the tents and send the corpse of Pallas to his parents'. With Aeneas 
going back indeed to the tents, with Mezentius having been killed, he sent the corpse of 
Pallas, son of Evander, to his parents in a wicker coffin, with him one hundred wise men who 
consoled his parents, and also all spoils of war that he had gained before his corpse. And 
when the corpse of Pallas arrived at his parents, his parents along with all the family with 
having their hairs strewn met him on the way. And a great lamentation in the house of 
Evander was done. What more? Aeneas, after sending Pallas' corpse to his parents, 
admonished all his men, saying they should prepare themselves to draw forth to the city of 
Laurentine where Latinus was in order to enter it and obtain its kingship. 

And as it came to pass, the love for Lavinia entered into Turnus' heart in the house of his 
father, as is mentioned above, where Juno led him, plucking him out of the battle. And not 
suffering love within himself thinking to himself, he said: 'And to lose I have Lavinia my 
spouse whom for many years I have betrothed?' And as he thought this, unaware of Daunus 
his father, taken by fury, hastened to Latinus his father in law; where again coming, not 
wanting to allow him, Latinus received him, rebuking him and saying: [Print Edition Page no. 

49] 'The realms of your father are yours, the cities are; return to the kingdom of your father, 
because the gods refuse you having my daughter in matrimony.' To him Turnus thus 
answered: 'Why bearer of the first do I not beg in the best way that....' After Turnus had 
taken him, a council was made in Latinus' kingdom and it was ordained that they would send 
ambassadors to king Diomedes of Thrace for seeking help. And Venulus was elected; and 
when Venulus arrived at Diomedes, he asked for help from him. Diomedes thus answered: 



'Against whom do you battle?' Venulus said: 'Against Aeneas the Trojan/ Diomedes said: 'I 
will not give auxiliary, for you wage hostile battle against a superior people of the gods. I 
knew how Aeneas was when we fought at Troy. There were two great men, Hector and 
Aeneas; they had a third such one, Troy would not be destroyed. Therefore no help will I 
give, but ask remedy for yourselves how you make peace with them.' 

And before Venulus had returned from from king Diomedes, Latinus made council with his 
lords, saying: 'How long would Venulus return to us, we should command ambassadors to 
Aeneas in which from him we would ask peace for twelve days so that all of theirs and ours 
would exit to the field and recollect their acknowledged corpses.' And the king's council was 
pleased, and one hundred great wise men were elected, sent with them what they offered 
Aeneas— one hundred white horses with saddles of gold and bridles; among those one 
hundred men was a certain elegant man, Drances by name. And when they arrived at 
Aeneas, to him they said: 'Our king Latinus sent us to ask you concede twice-six each days in 
so far as to collecting corpses which have been strewn in the camps.' Aeneas received them 
with dignity and accepted from them the gifts they brought, and he conceded the twelve 
days which they asked for and there was peace. Yet he answered thus to those ambassadors: 
'Hear you, o men. With my strong will I did not come here to your land to fight; instead 
admonished by the order of the gods, that a kingdom [Print Edition Page no. 50 was imminent 
for me, I rightfully came here. But I would like a council to speak with you that you would say 
to your king: "What is the use of troubling the remaining army? You see the fields whitening 
with human bones and the earth saturated with human blood. But I and Turnus, we would 
go out one on one, and the two of us then would fight; and the one who throws down his 
opponent would obtain the kingdom, and all the army would follow him.'" And after Aeneas 
said this to the ambassadors, pleased with each Aeneas' proposition, and he dismissed 
them. And the ambassadors returned to king Latinus, and the throne is located in the 
cabinet. And after the king reseated on his throne, as did all, and the ambassadors brought 
back those, behold suddenly women from the city of Laurentine exited to the field for their 
recognized corpses; and when they was the corpses lying on the field, with unbound hair all 
gave themselves into a great lamentation. And as a great lamentation sounded, the king and 
all who were with him, hearing the voices through the windows of the king's house, started 
to inspect the fields, and a great sadness entered in everyone's heart. Then Drances, one of 
the ambassadors who were with Aeneas, thus erupted: '0 Lord my king, you see the fields 
turning white with human bones, and nothing of your army is left. Why do you think this 
should be? For I would like, if the king will permit, to propose a condition that the paltry 
army that remained would not likewise perish. Turnus would go out against Aeneas and one 
on one would fight and none of the army would be with them. And the one who will be 
found to be victor, he would accept Lavinia your daughter in marriage, and also all the army 
would follow him.' And after Drances had said this, and Turnus disturbance in his face thus 
answered: 'And this is seen by you, that I alone will be able to subject to death for the 
Laurentine kingdom so that you may live? It would not be thus, but everyone of us would go 
out to fight against our enemies.' And Drances opposingly said thus, saying: 'And so that 
Lavinia as wife would become to Turnus, we are cheap of souls.' What more? 

When that contest was before king Latinus, suddenly Venulus was sent [Print Edition Page no. 
51], the ambassador to Diomedes whom they sent for seeking help, came. He brought a 
message from Diomedes to Latinus, in which he denied him and gave no help against the 



nation of the Trojans, because they are strong men, and from the people of the gods, and 
none against them will be able to fight. And when Venulus had announced this in the 
presence of the king and all of his lords in the cabinet, virtue of king Latinus and all of his 
men withdrew from their feelings; and thus both said: 'Other arms need to be prepared for 
Latinus.' What more? 

When twelve days of peace which they agreed with themselves had been passed, on the 
thirteenth shining day before the sunrise, Aeneas with all of his men armed themselves, and 
went towards the city of Laurentine, where king Latinus father of Lavinia reigned; and they 
started to put ladders on the walls, the way they could enter the city. And as Aeneas 
prepared them, Turnus exited from outside the city confronting Aeneas with an army; and 
both withdrawing from each other again made for the city, and Aeneas returned to their 
tents. And as these came to pass, an uprising was generated by the army in the kingdom of 
Latinus before Latinus himself. In which thus they muttered, saying so much men need not 
perish for the sake of a virgin princess, instead both of them who quarreled over her need to 
fight for themselves: and the one who emerged as a victor, he would take her in matrimony. 
And as they rioted amongst themselves over this, this council was convened, thus it was 
asked to Aeneas that he and Turnus would fight between themselves one on one. And this 
was done. And when the message arrived at Aeneas so that both between themselves, he 
and Turnus, would fight, Aeneas conceded. And they established the day that they first occur 
a sacrament before the altars with Latinus present there, so that whosoever as victor 
emerged, with the army whom they asked for help dismissed, would vindicate his own by 
himself. And both established the day that they vowed by themselves. What more? 

The established day came; and admonished priests built altars and they crowned it with 
laurels and prepared they hosts for sacrifice. And when each had been prepared, king 
Latinus exited the city wearing a crown of gold and gems on his head, riding on a chariot; 
and also Turnus donned himself Print Edition Page no. 52] with gilded breastplate, wearing a 
helmet of gold and gems on his head, bearing a lance in his hand, and also bearing a sword 
on the collar of his shoulder with heels of gold and boots on his feet, even he flowing exited 
on the chariot. Against them Aeneas came from his tents to swear an oath. And after both 
had advanced to the altars, first Aeneas started his vow thus, saying: 'Be now, oh Sun, a 
witness for me and you, oh Earth, would chastise as much and as such burden as I could 
bear.' When he had swore the oath, thus he burst forth from his mouth, saying: 'If you 
conquer me, you will send back the auxiliary that I asked for myself to their king and claim 
my own as yours. But if I am the victor, I will do the same to you.' 

And after they both vowed against each other, it came to pass that in that court winged 
beings dirty and innumerable (i.e., vultures, eagles, as well as ravens and kites) flying in over 
them kept watch. When Juturna sister of Turnus saw that, she encouraged Turnus to perfidy 
so that he would disavow that court. To him Juturna his sister said: 'You stand there! You see 
pest birds which pronounce victory to you. They appear to devour Aeneas along with his 
companions. Send yourself and rouse a battle.' After Juturna had said this to her brother, 
with an erect lance he pierced an unsuspecting Aeneas on his thigh. Seeing this, Aeneas 
almost dead, with a lance inserted in his thigh, he fled from the altar and arrived at his army. 
And when they wanted to extract the lance, they could barely cast off the wood of the lance, 
for the iron remained in his thigh. And after their doctors applied themselves to him, the 



doctors could not pull out the iron from him. And Aeneas for this reason came to a peril, so 
he made a testament. And when Ascanius his son and all of his people were gathered, Venus 
his mother came and started to ask for a herb which is called diptamum in the forests; it 
being discovered she applied salve and put it on the wound, and then excised the iron of the 
lance which was inside the wounds. And now Aeneas started to be healed and came to 
health. When he had obtained his full health, he armed himself again and with his people 
came to the city of Laurentine, and demanded Turnus that he come out to fight against him. 

And as he besieged the city, it came to pass that a council of the gods was convened. And all 
the gods came to Jupiter; and because Juno was inimical to Aeneas and his companions, she 
started to take for Turnus, as well as Juturna his sister, because it had been done in the midst 
of the ranks of the gods for Jupiter disgraced her. And when contention between Juno and 
Venus mother of Aeneas before Jupiter had been done, Jupiter, seeing them contending, 
[Print Edition Page no. 53] demanded the Fates to come; and when they arrived, Jupiter said to 
them to weigh between Aeneas and Turnus, to whom would victory emerge. And the Fates 
weighed both and found victory and kingship of Aeneas to emerge, not only to him, but also 
to those born from his sons, and those born of them. And after the Fates answered this, 
Jupiter ordered Juno to come to him. To her he said: 'You see the Fates answering between 
Aeneas and Turnus, and it was found victory and kingship for Aeneas will emerge. Therefore 
contention would be removed from you and from Venus, and remove your patronages from 
both, and because the Fates stated it, it would be absolute.' And after he had said this, Juno 
and Venus came to an agreement. And Juno removed patronage of Turnus. When Juturna 
his sister had seen this, she became unable to go against the wish of the gods, and she took 
herself to Turnus her brother; and Turnus came to be abandoned by the gods. 

And as this came to pass, as mentioned above, when Aeneas besieged the walls of the city 
of Laurentine, and it was mandated to him that they established a day when he and Turnus 
would fight a duel between themselves, and they established a day for themselves. And 
because Amata Latinus' wife Lavinia's mother and she had been in love of Turnus every day 
of the days ... until the day established they would go out to fight against each other. And 
Turnus adorned himself in military clothes, and armed he went to Amata his mother in law 
so that she ask the gods for him to condone victory to him. And when he talked to his 
mother in law, his mother in law started to sight and say to Turnus: 'I fear, my son, that 
something would come forth to you, because the whole house relies on you. That if 
something will come forth to you, I will not live anymore.' 

And when both were talking to each other, a cauldron was drawn, and Lavinia the virgin 
appeared adorned with gold and gems. When Turnus saw her, he burned in his arms and 
much he transfixed the appearance in the virgin; and he started to say thus to his mother in 
law: 'The mother held him, and I do not show myself to her because he is going to fight with 
a young one.' And after this had been said, behold Idmos the messenger came, saying: 
'Aeneas demanded that you go out to fight against him.' And Turnus answered, saying: 'Say 
to Aeneas: "Your utterances, o Aeneas, do not disturb me, instead the gods terrify and 
Jupiter the enemy.'" What more? When the conversation between him and his mother in 
law had finished, he went out to fight bidding farewell to her. And when he went out away 
from his mother in law, immediately his mother in law commanded all female senators, then 
plebs, who had been within the city of Laurentine that all prostrate themselves before 



Minerva [Print Edition Page no. 54] and pray for Turnus, so that she may give victory to him. 
What more? She, the queen, with Lavinia her daughter and with everyone went to the 
temple of Minerva. And before the altars with hairs unraveled prostrated themselves, and 
started to pray to Minerva that she may give Turnus a victory. When Turnus exited the gates 
of the city running, all the people of the city of Laurentine gathered themselves above the 
walls for the spectacle of their fight. 

Aeneas indeed, as he saw Turnus alone come out against him, likewise he alone exited from 
his tents confronting. And they started to approach each other like two bulls in a fight. 

Turnus indeed, when he ran against Aeneas, observed and saw a boundary stone posited in 
the field. Twelve youths could not move it, he caught it with one hand; and when he came to 
Aeneas, he threw it at him. Aeneas indeed took the stone up, as Virgil wrote: The boundary 
was put in the field so that it would set the fields apart, twice six hands each barely held it, 
the earth now produces such bodies. Turnus grabbing it with his hand threw it after Aeneas, 
and, as is mentioned above, Aeneas caught that stone. Aeneas made an attack against 
Turnus with his lance erect, and threw the lance against him and aimed it to Turnus under 
his knee. And raising his palms to the heavens, he begged Aeneas with a great voice, saying: 
'You have won, you have won; and extend your palms to the defeated. Lavinia is your wife. 
Enjoy your fate. Drauni,' he said, 'have mercy on the old man; such was father Anchises to 
you.' And Aeneas was close and had mercy on him; but when Turnus begged him, Aeneas 
saw the bracelet of Pallas, son of Evander, whom Aeneas had asked for help, and Turnus 
killed him; his bracelet encircled. And driven by grief he said to Turnus: 'I could let you live 
for your father; but because here with tyranny you slew from the spoils of the dead, 
deservedly the Pallas' agony whose bracelet you wear kills you.' And saying this, putting his 
foot on his chest he pierced him under his nipple with his lance. Amata indeed the wife of 
king Latinus, when she saw Turnus having been killed, driven by grief threw herself headlong 
over the walls and she was dead. What more? 

Indeed, the citizens of the city of Laurentine and he, king Latinus, when they saw Aeneas as 
a victor, opened the gates for him with a great triumph, and [Print Edition Page no. 55 Aeneas 
was received in the kingdom. After the death of Latinus, Aeneas indeed took kingship and 
built the city of Lavinia. And when he descended from his horse to the stream, he was called 
by order of the gods. Over them Aeneas reigned for three years. After his death Ascanius son 
of Aeneas took kingship, and left Laurentine the city of his father to Lavinia, which his father 
built, and obtained its kingship. And when he reigned there, Lavinia his stepmother, fearing 
Ascanius her stepson, from Laurentine the city of her father turned in flight and started to 
inhabit the forests secretly. And because Aeneas had made her pregnant, Postumus was 
born from her in the forests; and here with Ascanius regnant, who reigned for twenty two 
years, Postumus his brother born of Lavinia grew. After he had grown up, he built the city of 
Albana so that it be fulfilled what had been pronounced to Aeneas by the white sow which 
appeared to him on the river Tiberinus with thirty piglets, because in that very place the city 
of Albana was built. And that came to pass. What more? 

When Postumus built Albanus, he decorated it with citizens and there he started to live with 
Lavinia his mother. Ascanius indeed, with twenty two years completed in his reign, passed 
away, and after him lulus his son wanted to obtain the kingdom. But with Postumus coming 
to him from Albanum he conquered and commenced kingship of Albanum, and the kingdom 



of Laurentine ended. Where first Postumus Silvius, son of Aeneas born of Lavinia, reigned; 
and lulus son of Ascanius started to privatize at Lavinium. What more? After Postumus 
various kings started to reign at Albanum. That city reigned for four hundred and thirty 
years; and when it already came to the last reign, Procas glory of the nation of Trojans 
started to reign at Albanum. He procreated two sons in his reign— i.e., Amulius and Numitor. 
And when Procas passed away, his testament for his two sons Amulius and Numitor [Print 
Edition Page no. 56] thus left one gained with money and the other obtained the kingdom. 
Amulius gave a choice to his brother Numitor, which did he desire, money or kingdom. 
Numitor indeed was left with money, and which he took, and Amulius obtained the 
kingdom. When he obtained the kingdom, he took counsel; and the answer to him was that 
he would be killed by the lineage of Numitor his brother and the kingdom would perish. 

And it came to pass that two children were born of Numitor his brother— i.e., Sergestus and 
Rhea who was also Ilia. And when they had grown up and king Amulius saw the children of 
his brother grow up, fearing the answer, he brought Sergestus his nephew with him for a 
hunt and killed him in the woods. This counsel was found by Rhea indeed who as also Ilia 
that none from the lineage of his brother would exist. She gave herself to the temple so as to 
be a vestal virgin and did not procreate any child, so that none would exist from the lineage 
of his brother, which killed him, following the answer to him. And when Rhea who was also 
Ilia was serving in the temple. Mars mighty in war rushed in love of Ilia and raped her. She 
conceived in that rape, and born from her are Romulus the founder of the city of Rome and 
Remus his brother. When king Amulius their paternal uncle got to know of this, he brought 
those infant twins and ordered them be cast down in the river. Those boys by divine 
providence fell on grasses over the mouth of the river and started to cry. A she-wolf indeed, 
coming to the river for drinking water, acknowledged the sons of her master Mars and 
provided her teats. (Because the she-wolf was conditioned under the tutelage of Mars, 
rightly this fable recounts, a she-wolf nourished Remus and Romulus with her teats.) Then 
thereafter they were collected by Faustulus a shepherd who was on the seven hills; and gave 
them to Acca his wife to be nurtured. She, Acca wife of Faustulus, had been raised in a 
brothel. 

Those boys as they had grown up, knowing whence they were born, obtained the seven hills 
and started to collect themselves power of wandering youths, and it came to pass [Print 
Edition Page no. 57] that not too small power was with them. When king Amulius had heard 
of that, he sent an army against them; and in that sent army Amulius was killed by Romulus, 
and the answer to him had been fulfilled, because he was killed from the lineage of his 
brother. Indeed, with Amulius having been killed, Romulus erected a statue of Numitor his 
grandfather in the kingdom of Albanum, and he founded Rome on the Aventine hill. And 
after he had founded it, they started to think about wives how they would get them, and 
they said that none gave herself to them. And with a council initiated they encircled and 
started to found a city. For the dedication of which the Sabines with their women and 
daughters petitioned. And when they entered there, they took the daughters of the Sabines 
and married them. Seeing this, the Sabines raised war against them. They indeed through 
ambassadors asked that both draw out a full year for themselves; that came to pass. And 
within the limits of a year children from all were born, and when the established day had 
come, both drew forth to each other. Romulus, indeed, congregating to him all his people, 
thus gave a speech to them, saying to drive all infants in front of the battle line; and it was 



done. The Sabines, indeed, as they came to them, saw the infants in front of the line lying on 
the ground crying. Driven by sadness because they were their descendants, confirmed peace 
with them; and both of the mixed with each other, and raised Romulus as a king for 
themselves. Behold how Rome was founded and the Roman people came to be! 

With Romulus indeed being taken by the gods, the Romans deified him. After whose death 
Numa Pompilius took kingship, and after him various kings started to reign all the way until 
Caesar Augustus, he Caesar Augustus reigned for fifty seven years. On the forty second year 
of his reign Christ was born. After Caesar, Tiberius took kingship. On the eighteenth year of 
his reign, Christ passed away. Let us return to the matter. After the death of Numitor at 
Albanum the kingdom was finished, and it was transferred to the Romans; and the city of 
Albana started to be subject to Rome. Here "The Destruction of Troy" ends.